What is a Schedule 1 Substance?

This article lists the Schedule 1 substances, with a discussion of the charge operating with the presence of a schedule 1 substance or cocaine at the end. MCL 333.7212.

What is a Schedule 1 Substance?

A schedule 1 substance is a substance that has a high potential for abuse and no currently accepted medical uses in the U.S.

List of Schedule 1 Substances

Schedule 1 substances contain diverse types of drugs. On the list are opiates, amphetamines, enactogens, cathinones, designer drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, and synthetic cannabinoids.

Any of the following opiates. Many of these opiate drugs are much more potent than morphine.

Possession of a Controlled Substance may be a Felony. Read about Felony Charges.

The above drugs are all examples of the opiate family drugs, often referred to as painkillers. These drugs were so strong that use in the medical setting isn’t realistic.

Opiate drugs are listed on all schedules, 1 through 5.

Any of the following opium derivatives:

Up until this point on the list, all the drugs have been opiate drugs, generally extremely strong opiates that a person wouldn’t take in a medical setting. Opiates are drugs that derive from the drug opium, used to mask pain. These drugs are generally referred to as painkillers. In the blow section, the list continues with hallucinogenic drugs.

The following hallucinogenic substances:

  • 2-Methylamino-1-phenylpropan-1-one (Methcathinone, Cat, Ephedrone) – methamphetamine-related drug.
  • 3,4-methylenedioxy amphetamine – Enactogen and amphetamine
  • 5-methoxy-3, 4-methylenedioxy
  • amphetamine
  • 3, 4, 5-trimethoxy amphetamine
  • Bufotenine – a tryptamine related to serotonin, found in alkaloids in skin of toads and other animals.
  • 3-(B-dimethylaminoethyl)-5 hydrozyindole
  • 3-(2-dimethylaminoethyl)-5 indolol
  • N,N-dimethylserotonin; 5-hydroxy-N-dimethyltryptamine
  • Mappine – tryptamine found in toad skin
  • 2, 5-Dimethoxyamphetamine
  • 2, 5-Dimethoxy-a-methylphenethylamine; 2,5-DMA
  • 4-Bromo-2, 5-Dimethoxyamphetamine
  • 4-bromo-2, 5 dimethoxy-a-methylphenethylamine; 4-bromo
  • 2,5-DMA
  • Diethyltryptamine – psychedelic drug
  • N,N-Diethyltryptamine; DET
  • Dimethyltryptamine
  • DMT – tryptamine molecule in animals and plants
  • 4-methyl-2, 5-dimethoxyamphetamine
  • 4-methyl-2, 5-dimethoxy-a-methyl-phenethylamine
  • DOM, STP
  • 4-methoxyamphetamine
  • 4-methoxy-a-methylphenethylamine; paramethoxy amphetamine;
  • PMA
  • Ibogaine – A psychedelic with dissociative properties, found in African roots of plants
  • Some trade and other names:
  • 7-Ethyl-6,6a,7,8,9,10,12,13
  • Octahydro-2-methoxy-6,9-methano-5H-
  • Pyrido (1, 2:1, 2 azepino 4, 5-b) indole
  • tabernanthe iboga – stimulant and hallucinogen found in central Africa
  • Lysergic acid diethylamide – LSD. hallucinogen
  • Except as provided in subsection (2), Marihuana, including
  • pharmaceutical-grade cannabis
  • Mecloqualone – quinazolinone-class GABAergic
  • Mescaline – Mescaline is a naturally occurring psychedelic alkaloid of the phenethylamine class, found in Peyote cactus
  • Peyote
  • N-ethyl-3 piperidyl benzilate – anticholinergic drug, which is a substance that blocks neurotransmitter acetylcholine
  • N-methyl-3 piperidyl benzilate
  • Psilocybin – magic mushrooms. Hallucinogenic drug
  • Psilocyn
  • Thiophene analog of phencyclidine
  • 1-(1-(2-thienyl)cyclohexyl) piperidine
  • 2-thienyl analog of phencyclidine; TPCP – dissociative anesthetic drug with psychostimulant and hallucinogenic effects similar to PCP.

The above part of the list was for hallucinogens. The below part of the list focuses on substances that are synthetic cannabinoids. They are sometimes sold as designer drugs. They are sometimes placed on marijuana itself. These substances grew in popularity for a while before legislatures discovered them and moved to ban them, sort of like what happened with bath salts, which are also listed later this list.

Read More: Possession of a Controlled Substance

Synthetic equivalents of the substances contained in the plant, are included in schedule 1:

  • /\1 cis or trans tetrahydrocannabinol
  • /\6 cis or trans tetrahydrocannabinol
  • /\3,4, cis or trans tetrahydrocannabinol

Synthetic cannabinoids. As used in this subdivision, “synthetic cannabinoids” includes any material, compound, mixture, or preparation that is not otherwise listed as a controlled substance in this schedule or in schedules II through V, is not approved by the federal food and drug administration as a drug, and contains any quantity of the following substances, their salts, isomers (whether optical, positional, or geometric), homologues (analogs), and salts of isomers and homologues (analogs), unless specifically excepted, whenever the existence of these salts, isomers, homologues (analogs), and salts of isomers and homologues (analogs) is possible within the specific chemical designation:

Any compound containing a 3-(1-naphthoyl)indole structure, also known as napthoylindoles, with substitution at the nitrogen atom of the indole ring by an alkyl, haloalkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-piperidinyl)methyl, or 2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl group, whether or not further substituted on the indole ring to any extent and whether or not substituted on the naphthyl ring to any extent. Examples of this structural class include but are not limited to: JWH-007, JWH-015, JWH-018, JWH-019, JWH-073, JWH-081, JWH-122, JWH-200, JWH-210, JWH-398, AM-1220, AM-2201, and WIN-55, 212-2.

Any compound containing a 1H-indol-3-yl-(1-naphthyl)methane structure, also known as napthylmethylindoles, with substitution at the nitrogen atom of the indole ring by an alkyl, haloalkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-piperidinyl)methyl, or 2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl group, whether or not further substituted on the indole ring to any extent and whether or not substituted on the naphthyl ring to any extent. Examples of this structural class include but are not limited to: JWH-175, and JWH-184.

Any compound containing a 3-(1-naphthoyl)pyrrole structure, also known as naphthoylpyrroles with substitution at the nitrogen atom of the pyrrole ring by an alkyl, haloalkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl, 1-(N-methyl-2- piperidinyl)methyl, or 2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl group, whether or not further substituted on the pyrrole ring to any extent and whether or not substituted on the naphthyl ring to any extent. Examples of this structural class include but are not limited to: JWH-370, JWH-030.

Any compound containing a naphthylideneindene structure with substitution at the 3-position of the indene ring by an alkyl, haloalkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-piperidinyl)methyl, or 2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl group, whether or not further substituted on the indene ring to any extent and whether or not substituted on the naphthyl ring to any extent. Examples of this structural class include but are not limited to: JWH-176.

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Any compound containing a 3-phenylacetylindole structure, also known as phenacetylindoles, with substitution at the nitrogen atom of the indole ring by an alkyl, haloalkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-piperidinyl)methyl, or 2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl group, whether or not further substituted on the indole ring to any extent and whether or not substituted on the phenyl ring to any extent. Examples of this structural class include but are not limited to: RCS-8 (SR-18), JWH-250, JWH-203, JWH-251, and JWH-302.

Any compound containing a 2-(3-hydroxycyclohexyl)phenol structure, also known as cyclohexylphenols, with substitution at the 5-position of the phenolic ring by an alkyl, haloalkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-piperidinyl)methyl, or 2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl group, whether or not substituted on the cyclohexyl ring to any extent. Examples of this structural class include but are not limited to: CP-47,497 (and homologues(analogs)), cannabicyclohexanol, and CP-55,940.

Read More: Domestic Assault Case Overview

Any compound containing a 3-(benzoyl)indole structure, also known as benzoylindoles, with substitution at the nitrogen atom of the indole ring by an alkyl, haloalkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-piperidinyl)methyl, or 2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl group, whether or not further substituted on the indole ring to any extent and whether or not substituted on the phenyl ring to any extent. Examples of this structural class include but are not limited to: AM-694, pravadoline (WIN-48,098), RCS-4, AM-630, AM-679, AM-1241, and AM-2233.

Any compound containing a 11-hydroxy-/\8-tetrahydrocannabinol structure, also known as dibenzopyrans, with further substitution on the 3-pentyl group by an alkyl, haloalkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkyethyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-piperidinyl)methyl, or 2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl group. Examples of this structural class include but are not limited to: HU-210, JWH-051, JWH-133.

Read More: ArborYpsi Law Blog

Any compound containing a 3-(L-adamantoyl)indole structure, also known as adamantoylindoles, with substitution at the nitrogen atom of the indole ring by an alkyl, haloalkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-piperidinyl)methyl, or 2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl group, whether or not further substituted on the adamantyl ring system to any extent. Examples of this structural class include but are not limited to AM-1248.

Read More: Sniffing Glue, Driving Under the Influence, and Intoxication.

Any other synthetic chemical compound that is a cannabinoid receptor agonist and mimics the pharmacological effect of naturally occurring cannabinoids that is not listed in schedules II through V and is not approved by the federal food and drug administration as a drug.

The below drugs are sort of a grab bag of different types of drugs, including enactogens, cathinones, amphetamine-like drugs, and what-have-you.

  • Gamma-hydroxybutyrate and any isomer, salt, or salt of isomer of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. (GHB) (Sodium oxybate, 4-hydroxybutanoic acid monosodium salt).
  • 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine – (MDMA, Ecstasy) Hallucinogen and enactogen.
  • N-Benzylpiperazine – amphetamine-like drug that is a stimulant and euphoriant. (BZP, Benzylpiperazine, 1-(phenylmethyl)-piperazine).
  • 3-Chlorophenylpiperazine – Designer drug that is a psychoactive drug of the phenylpiperazine class. (MCPP)
  • 1-(3-Trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine – An MDMA alternative, piperazine class of drugs. (TFMPP).
  • 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxybenzylpiperazine (2C-B-BZP).
  • (6aR,10aR)-9-(Hydroxymethyl)-6,6-dimethyl-3-(2-methyloctan-2-yl)-6a,7,10,10a-tetrahydrobenzo[c]chromen-1-ol. (HU-210) A synthetic cannabis.
  • 2-[(1R,3S)-3-hydroxycyclohexyl]-5-(2-methyloctan-2-yl)phenol and its side chain homologues. (CP47,497).
  • 1-pentyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (JWH-018). Analgesic chemical from the naphthoylindole used in synthetic marijuana because of it’s similar effects to THC.
  • 1-butyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole. (JWH-073). Used in synthetic cannabis.
  • (2-methyl-1-propyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-1-naphthalenyl-methanone. JWH-015 – Cannabinoid agonist.
  • [1-[2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl]-1H-indol-3-yl]-1-naphthalenyl-methanone.m JWH-200 – Cannabinoid receptor agonist.
  • 1-(1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-2-(2-methoxyphenyl)-ethanone – JWH-250 – cannabinoid-related rug
  • Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone). Synthetic drug of the cathinone and amphetamine classes. Mephedrone is also called Cat, Meow Meow, Bubble, and Bubble love.
  • 4-Methyl-alpha-pyrrolidinobutyrophenone – A stimulant compound.
  • Methylenedioxypyrovalerone – stimulant of the cathinone class. Think bath salts with fun names.
  • 5,6-Methylenedioxy-2-aminoindane – Enactogen drug. (Woof Woof, MDAI).
  • Naphyrone (Naphthylpyrovalerone). Triple reuptake inhibitor, a stimulant drug. (Rave, NRG-1).
  • Pyrovalerone (1-(4-Methylphenyl)-2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-pentanone) – synthetic stimulant from the cathinone class.
  • Catha edulis; except as provided in subdivision (u) and section 7218, all parts of the plant presently classified botanically as catha edulis, whether growing or not; the leaves and seeds of that plant; any extract from any part of that plant; and every compound, salt, derivative, mixture, or preparation of that plant or its leaves, seeds, or extracts. (Khat, Qat). Catha Edulis is a plant native to the Arabian peninsula and the Horn of Africa. An amhetamine-like substance.
  • Cathinone – found in the plant catha edulis, these substance are similar to ephedrine and amphetamines.
  • Salvia divinorum – a plant with psychoactive properties. Native to Oaxaca, Mexico.
  • Salvinorin A – A Mexican plant with psychoactive properties.
  • Synthetic cathinones – artificial cathinones.
  • Any compound containing a 2-amino-1-propanone structure with substitution at the 1-position with a monocyclic or fused polycyclic ring system and a substitution at the nitrogen atom by an alkyl group, cycloalkyl group, or incorporation into a heterocyclic structure. Examples of this structural class include, but are not limited to, dimethylcathinone, ethcathinone, and alpha-pyrrolidinopropiophenone.
  • Any compound containing a 2-amino-1-propanone structure with substitution at the 1-position with a monocyclic or fused polycyclic ring system and a substitution at the 3-position carbon with an alkyl, haloalkyl, or alkoxy group. Examples of this structural class include, but are not limited to, naphyrone.
  • Any compound containing a 2-amino-1-propanone structure with substitution at the 1-position with a monocyclic or fused polycyclic ring system and a substitution at any position of the ring system with an alkyl, haloalkyl, halogen, alkylenedioxy, or alkoxy group, whether or not further substituted at any position on the ring system to any extent. Examples of this structural class include, but are not limited to, mephedrone, methylone, and 3-fluoromethylone.
  • Marihuana, including pharmaceutical-grade cannabis, is a schedule 2 controlled substance if it is manufactured, obtained, stored, dispensed, possessed, grown, or disposed of in compliance with this act and as authorized by federal authority.

Operating with the Presence of a Schedule 1 Controlled Substance or Cocaine

In Michigan, it is against the law to operate a motor vehicle with “any amount” of a schedule 1 controlled substance (any of the above), as well as cocaine (the lone schedule 2 appearance in the statute). Whether the driver is affected by the drug is irrelevant. This means you could be convicted of OWPCS even though you took the drug the day before, so long as the drug is in your system.

In addition, the legislature has stated that “any amount” of the drug is sufficient for guilt. We can imagine any amount to be even the smallest fraction.

These cases are difficult to beat for the obvious reason that a person could be found guilty with even the smallest fraction of the drug in their system. The focus for the defense lawyer would be to challenge issues such as the arrest, the investigation, the chemical test, and the issue of operation as well as others.

Why On Earth is Marijuana on This List?

That’s a difficult question to answer. Does marijuana need to be on the same list as a drug that is described as 8,700 times the strength or morphine. Does marijuana need to be on the same list as heroin. Does marijuana need to be on the same list as a powerful hallucinogen that makes you feel like you’re in outer space with dinosaurs?

It makes no sense. Blame reefer madness. I’ll predict that marijuana will move schedules sometime in my lifetime.

The determination was made for political reasons, reasoning that marijuana has no medicinal use, which we know is incorrect.

Call ArborYpsi Law at 734.883.9584

Call Sam Bernstein at 734.883.9584 or e-mail at bernstein@arborypsilaw.com.

Sam Bernstein is a Criminal Lawyer in Ann Arbor.

ArborYpsi Law is located at 4158 Washtenaw Ave., Ann Arbor, MI 48108.

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